B12 / Methylcobalamin / Hydroxocobalamin
Vitamin B12, also called cobalamin, is a water-soluble vitamin that is involved in the metabolism of every cell of the human body: it is a cofactor in DNA synthesis, and in both fatty acid and amino acid metabolism. It is particularly important in the normal functioning of the nervous system via its role in the synthesis of myelin, and in the maturation of developing red blood cells in the bone marrow.
Vitamin B12 is one of eight B vitamins; it is the largest and most structurally complex vitamin. It consists of a class of chemically related compounds (vitamers), all of which show physiological activity. It contains the biochemically rare element cobalt (chemical symbol Co) positioned in the center of a corrin ring. The only organisms to produce vitamin B12 are certain bacteria, and archaea. Some of these bacteria are found in the soil around the grasses that ruminants eat; they are taken into the animal, proliferate, form part of their gut flora, and continue to produce vitamin B12.
Because there are no reliable vegetable sources of the vitamin, vegans must use a supplement or fortified foods for B12 intake or risk serious health consequences. Otherwise, most omnivorous people in developed countries obtain enough vitamin B12 from consuming animal products including meat, milk, eggs, and fish. Staple foods, especially those that form part of a vegan diet, are often fortified by having the vitamin added to them. Vitamin B12 supplements are available in single agent or multivitamin tablets; and pharmaceutical preparations may be given by intramuscular injection.
The most common cause of vitamin B12 deficiency in developed countries is impaired absorption due to a loss of gastric intrinsic factor, which must be bound to food-source B12 in order for absorption to occur. Another group affected are those on long term antacid therapy, using proton pump inhibitors, H2 blockers or other antacids. This condition may be characterised by limb neuropathy or a blood disorder called pernicious anemia, a type of megaloblastic anemia. Folate levels in the individual may affect the course of pathological changes and symptomatology. Deficiency is more likely after age 60, and increases in incidence with advancing age. Dietary deficiency is very rare in developed countries due to access to dietary meat and fortified foods, but children in some regions of developing countries are at particular risk due to increased requirements during growth coupled with lack of access to dietary B12; adults in these regions are also at risk. Other causes of vitamin B12 deficiency are much less frequent.
What does B12 do for me?
- Increases Red Blood Cell Production resulting in better oxygenation
- Helps synthesis of myelin which in turn increases neuronal transmission
- Helps with absorption in the gut
- Vegans and Vegetarians need supplementation as B12 is sourced through animal proteins
Glutathione (GSH) is an antioxidant in plants, animals, fungi, and some bacteria and archaea. Glutathione is capable of preventing damage to important cellular components caused by reactive oxygen species such as free radicals, peroxides, lipid peroxides, and heavy metals. It is a tripeptide with a gamma peptide linkage between the carboxyl group of the glutamate side chain and the amine group of cysteine, and the carboxyl group of cysteine is attached by normal peptide linkage to a glycine.
Thiol groups are reducing agents, existing at a concentration around 5 mM in animal cells. Glutathione reduces disulfide bonds formed within cytoplasmic proteins to cysteines by serving as an electron donor. In the process, glutathione is converted to its oxidized form, glutathione disulfide(GSSG), also called L-(–)-glutathione.
Once oxidized, glutathione can be reduced back by glutathione reductase, using NADPH as an electron donor. The ratio of reduced glutathione to oxidized glutathione within cells is often used as a measure of cellular oxidative stress.
What does Glutathione do for me?
- Important role in immune function via white blood cell production and is a potent anti- viral agent
- It is one of the strongest anti-cancer agents made by the body
- Glutathione levels decrease with age. It is involved in cellular differentiation and slows the aging process
- Given IV or Intramuscularly DOES NOT lighten skin.
Vitamin B1 Thiamine plays a central role in the release of energy from carbohydrates. It is involved in RNA and DNA production, as well as nerve function. Its active form is a coenzyme called thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP), which takes part in the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl coenzyme A in metabolism.
Vitamin B2 Riboflavin is involved in release of energy in the electron transport chain, the citric acid cycle, as well as the catabolism of fatty acids (beta oxidation).
Vitamin B3 Niacin is composed of two structures: nicotinic acid and nicotinamide. There are two co-enzyme forms of niacin: nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide(NAD) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP). Both play an important role in energy transfer reactions in the metabolism of glucose, fat and alcohol.
NAD carries hydrogens and their electrons during metabolic reactions, including the pathway from the citric acid cycle to the electron transport chain. NADP is a coenzyme in lipid and nucleic acid synthesis.
Vitamin B5 Pantothenic acid is involved in the oxidation of fatty acids and carbohydrates. Coenzyme A, which can be synthesised from pantothenic acid, is involved in the synthesis of amino acids, fatty acids, ketone bodies, cholesterol, phospholipids, steroid hormones, neurotransmitters (such as acetylcholine), and antibodies.
Vitamin B6 pyridoxine, pyridoxal, pyridoxamineThe active form pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP) (depicted) serves as a cofactor in many enzyme reactions mainly in amino acid metabolism including biosynthesis of neurotransmitters.
Vitamin B9 Folate acts as a co-enzyme in the form of tetrahydrofolate (THF), which is involved in the transfer of single-carbon units in the metabolism of nucleic acids and amino acids. THF is involved in pyrimidine nucleotide synthesis, so is needed for normal cell division, especially during pregnancy and infancy, which are times of rapid growth. Folate also aids in erythropoiesis, the production of red blood cells.
What does B-Complex do for me?
- Maintain good health and well-being
- Increase Energy Levels
- Promotes Brain Function
- Promotes Cell Metabolism
- Helps prevent infections
- Promotes Cell Health
Ascorbic Acid/Vitamin C
Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid and L-ascorbic acid, is a vitamin found in various foods and sold as a dietary supplement. It is used to prevent and treat scurvy. Vitamin C is an essential nutrient involved in the repair of tissue and the enzymatic production of certain neurotransmitters. It is required for the functioning of several enzymes and is important for immune system function. It also functions as an antioxidant.
What does Vitamin C do for me?
- Increases Immune system function
- Helps repair tissue
- Involved in enzyme functioning
- Prevents scurvy if you are an 18th century seaman
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